Maureen Murdock is generally regarded as the first to chart an alternative to Joseph Campbell’s Hero’s Journey narrative paradigm that she believed is more appropriate for women’s life journeys. As a student of Campbell’s, Murdock, came to believe that the Hero’s Journey model did not adequately address the psycho-spiritual journey of women. She developed a model of a heroine’s journey based on her work with women in therapy. When she showed it to Campbell in 1983, Campbell reportedly said, “Women don’t need to make the journey. In the whole mythological journey, the woman is there. All she has to do is realize that she’s the place that people are trying to get to.” Perhaps Campbell viewed the hero’s journey as a journey toward wholeness, and in a patriarchal society in which men subordinate qualities traditionally associated with the feminine, the search for wholeness would lead to their reclaiming so-called feminine qualities and values. However, it appears that Campbell was either uninterested in women’ reclaiming qualities that had been lost to them through enculturation or those that had never been viewed as rightfully theirs, or he was blinded by the fact that the myths that he was examining involved male figures. At any rate, Murdock became convinced that women were involved in their own psycho-spiritual journeys and quests and developed the following model.
- HEROINE SEPARATES FROM THE FEMININE–often a mother or societally prescribed feminine role.
- IDENTIFICATION WITH THE MASCULINE AND GATHERING OF ALLIES for a new way of life. This often involves choosing a path that is different than the role prescribed for him/her deciding to gear to”fight” an organization, role, or group that is limiting her, or entering some male/masculine-defined sphere.
- ROAD OR TRIALS AND MEETING OGRES AND DRAGONS. Heroine encounters trials and meets people who try to dissuade her from pursuing her chosen path and/or destroy her(ogres and dragons or their metaphorical counterparts).
- EXPERIENCING THE BOON OF SUCCESS by overcoming the obstacles. This would typically be where the hero’s or “shero’s” (a female protagonist on a hero’s journey) tale ends.
- HEROINE AWAKENS TO FEELINGS OF SPIRITUAL ARIDITY / DEATH because the new way of life is too limited. Success in this new way of life is either temporary, illusory, shallow, or requires a betrayal of self over time.
- INITIATION AND DESCENT TO THE GODDESS. The heroine faces a crisis of some sort in which the new way is insufficient and falls into despair. All of her “masculine” strategies have failed her.
- HEROINE URGENTLY YEARNS TO RECONNECT WITH THE FEMININE, but cannot go back to her initial limited state/position.
- HEROINE HEALS THE MOTHER/ DAUGHTER SPLIT reclaiming some of her initial values, skills or attributes (or those of others like her) but views them from a new perspective.
- HEROINE HEALS THE WOUNDED MASCULINE WITHIN. Heroine makes peace with the “masculine” approach to the world as it applies to herself.
- HEROINE INTEGRATES THE MASCULINE AND FEMININE to face the world or future with a new understanding of herself and the world/life. Heroine sees through binaries and can interact with a complex world that includes her but is larger than her personal lifetime or geographical/cultural milieu.
Below is the journey laid out in chart form.